Kolkata Police
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Constitutional Rights


Article 20 of the Constitution of India prohibits:

  • Conviction or greater sentence for an offence under ex post facto criminal laws
  • Prosecution and punishment for the same offence more than once
  • Compelling a person accused of any offence to be a witness against himself

Article 21 protects against arbitrary:

  • Arrest
  • Detention and
  • Deprivation of life and personal liberty

Article 22 guarantee to a person arrested for any offence:

  • Right to be informed as soon as may be of the grounds of arrest
  • Right of freedom to consult and to be represented by a lawyer of his own choice

Right to be produced before a Magistrate within 24 hours of arrest and detention beyond the said period only on the order of the Magistrate. Free legal aid is provided to those who cannot afford the same. It is provided not only when trial commences but also during police custody or during production before the magistrate for the first time or for remand from time to time.

  • Member of a Scheduled Caste or Scheduled Tribe
  • A victim of trafficking in human beings or beggar as referred to in Article 23 of the Constitution
  • A woman or a child
  • A mentally ill or otherwise disabled person
  • A person under circumstances of undeserved want such as being
  • A victim of a mass disaster, ethnic violence, caste atrocity, flood, drought, earthquake or industrial disaster; or
  • An industrial workman; or
  • In custody including custody in a protective home within the meaning of clause (g) of section 2 of the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956, or in a juvenile home within the meaning of clause (j) of Section 2 of the Juvenile Justice Act, 1986, or in a psychiatric hospital/or psychiatric nursing home within the meaning of clause (g) of section 2 of the Mental Health Act, 1987
  • In addition to the persons mentioned in clauses (a) to (g) of section 12 of the Act, a citizen of India whose annual income from all sources does not exceed fifty thousand rupees

Section 50 Cr PC provides for Communication of:

  • Grounds of arrest to the accused person
  • Right to be released on bail if a person is arrested not for a non-bailable offence and that he may arrange for sureties on his behalf

Sections 49, 54, 56 and 76 Cr PC put in effect Constitutional provisions to prevent arbitrary exercise of power to arrest

  • An arrested person cannot be subjected to more restraint than is necessary to prevent his escape. (Section 49 CrPC)
  • Use of handcuffs is permitted only in exceptionally rare cases to prevent escape or violence keeping in view the propensity of the arrested person
  • Medical examination of an accused by a medical practitioner. (Section 54 CrPC)
  • Expeditious production of a person arrested without a warrant, subject to provisions regarding bail, before a Magistrate or the officer in charge of a police station. (Section 56 CrPC)
  • No detention of a person arrested without warrant beyond 24 hr in the absence of a special order of a Magistrate under section 167 CrPC (Sec. 57 CrPC)
  • Production before a Magistrate within 24 hours of person arrested in execution of warrant. (Sec. 76 CrPC)

Section 47, 51, 100 and 165 Cr. PC while empowering search also lay down safeguards

  • Safe custody of articles seized from the person of an arrested person and giving of a receipt in this regard. (Sec. 51CrPC)
  • Association of witnesses, search in their presence and signing of the search list by them; occupant or his representative to be allowed to be present during the search and providing of a list of seized articles to the person searched. (Sec.100 and 165 CrPC)

Section 436, 437, 438 along with Sections 50(2) and 167 Cr PC provide for the procedure for release on bail.

  • Bail, on production of proper surety/bond, is a matter of right in case of bailable offences. (Sec. 436 CrPC).

In non bailable cases, the arrested person or his counsel can move the appropriate Court for bail, which may be granted or denied keeping in view the legal provisions and the facts and circumstances of the case.

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